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Although left-handers become accustomed to using right-handed devices, an underlying preference for objects that afford the dominant hand could remain. We employed eye tracking while left- and right-handed participants viewed advertisements for everyday products. Participants then rated aesthetic appeal, purchase intention, and perceived value.

Left-handed participants found advertisements for products that more easily afforded them action to be more aesthetically appealing. They also indicated greater future purchase intention for products that were oriented towards the left hand, and gave these products a higher perceived value. Further, across multiple eye movement measures, our data show that participant eye movements were altered by the orientation of the handle, such that this side of the image was examined earlier and for longer, regardless of handedness.

These findings highlight intrinsic differences in the way in which we perceive objects and our underlying judgments about those products, based on handedness. Handedness and object affordance. Ulrich S. May 18, ; Accepted: June 14, ; Published: July 24, Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: Data are available on Open Science Framework osf. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Introduction Our handedness influences how we attend to, process, and interact with items in the physical world. As a result, left-handers need to adapt to this right-handed environment.

As everyday products, such as scissors, are specialised for use by either the left- or the right-hand, a market targeting left-handers exists. Gibson [ 7 ] proposed a relational perspective between the physical world and its perceiver. We are surrounded by affordances. For example, stairs afford climbing, and surfaces that are horizontal, flat, rigid, and sufficiently large afford support. Objects also afford actions; the handle of a teapot affords grasping.

As manual capabilities are different for left- and right-handers, it follows that handedness influences the perception of object affordances. Certainly, there is evidence that handedness affects how objects are processed and manipulated [ 8 — 10 ].

Although we are consciously unaware of it, affordances also influence object preferences, in that people prefer products that are easier to interact with [ 11 — 13 ]. For example, Eelen et al. Interestingly, self-reported flexible right-handers showed a stronger preference for these products than rigid right-handers. These findings suggest flexible right-handers pay more attention to object handle orientation than rigid right-handers.

However, because Eelen et al. Purchase decisions might also be influenced by handedness. Elder and Krishna [ 12 ] found participants showed greater intent to purchase a culinary dish with a utensil oriented toward the dominant hand than an equivalent dish with a utensil affording the non-dominant hand.

Although this finding provides preliminary support for the idea that handedness influences purchase decisions, Elder and Krishna [ 12 ] used a single stimulus in each experiment, so whether their findings generalise across different objects is unknown. The authors also did not actively recruit left-handers, meaning their sample was predominantly comprised of right-handers.

Therefore, it is once again uncertain whether a comparable bias in purchase decisions occurs amongst left-handers. In the current study, we extended upon the findings of Eelen et al. Furthermore, we recruited an equal number of left- and right-handed participants to determine whether equivalent preferences for products affording the dominant hand are seen across handedness groups. As left-handers interact with products designed for right-handers on a daily basis, left- and right-handers might not attend to and process affordances in an equivalent manner.

In addition, we included a novel rating scale to assess perceived product value. This scale was used to determine whether left-handers, specifically, would attribute greater value to left-handed products. A secondary goal of our research was to clarify the attentional processes that accompany product preferences. While handedness and object handle orientation appear to influence product ratings, the attentional mechanisms underlying these preferences remain unknown.

It may be that object handle affordances are especially inclined to draw attention when they most easily afford action to the viewer; that is, when they are congruent with the dominant hand. Past research investigating whether handles are generally and inherently visually salient has produced inconsistent results on this matter [ 14 — 17 ]. Thus, it may be that motor-related preferences e. Eye tracking, which provides an objective measure of attentional orienting, was used to determine whether gaze patterns differ based on handedness and object handle orientation.

With respect to consumer research, Duchowski [ 18 ] suggested that eye tracking could provide insight into how consumers spread visual attention and which product features attract the most attention. For example, when examining visual scenes, items that have received a greater number of fixations are more strongly preferred than items that have not been fixated [ 19 , 20 ]. Furthermore, when deciding between two alternatives, more fixations are directed toward the product that is ultimately chosen [ 21 — 25 ].

We examined whether handedness and object affordance interact to influence time to first fixation upon, total fixation duration, and the ordering of fixations within the left and right visual fields. As heat maps provide a visual summary of eye movements [ 26 ], we included separate heat maps for each advertisement to show which areas attracted the most attention.

We predicted handedness and product handle orientation would interact to influence participant judgments on all three rating scales. That is, right-handed participants would rate products as more aesthetically pleasing, report greater intent to purchase and attribute a higher monetary value to products with a right- than left-facing handle. For left-handers, we expected the reverse pattern.

With respect to eye movements, we predicted that participants would initially fixate upon the left side of the image, consistent with known tendencies to begin scanning on the left side amongst left-to-right readers. Furthermore, we hypothesised that participants would spend more time fixating upon the side of the image that contained the actionable part of the object i. In relation to our handle AOI, we expected that participants would fixate directly upon the handle earlier, and for longer, when it was oriented toward their dominant hand.

We also included an exploratory manipulation by showing half of our laboratory participants advertisements that contained text, whereas the other half of our laboratory participants saw advertisements that did not contain text. These advertisements were identical in all other facets. We chose to include this manipulation as we wanted to use advertisements that were highly ecologically valid i.

In this instance, we might have failed to observe significant differences in relation to eye movements simply because participants were focussed upon reading in lieu of examining the products themselves. As our rationale for including the advertisements without text was related to our eye movement data, we chose to manipulate this factor in our laboratory sample only.

As such, we note that the majority of our participants saw advertisements that contained text. Therefore, we did not have any directional hypotheses in relation to advertisement type, but we included this factor within our analyses to determine whether the presence of text impacted eye movements. In order to achieve this sample size, we made use of two recruitment strategies. As such, we were able to recruit participants based on their pre-screen handedness information without explicitly informing them that we were targeting left- and right-handers.

These participants completed both eye tracking and ratings measures. To increase the number of responders for the ratings scales, we also recruited individuals through the online crowdsourcing company, CrowdFlower.

In this instance, we specifically recruited both left- and right-handed participants through the use of two surveys. All participants provided written informed consent prior to participation.

Although we recruited participants, as a result of a technical issue, eye tracking data failed to record for five Flinders University participants. Four online participants were also excluded, because they attempted to complete the survey twice.

Of these participants, 47 left-handers 48 right-handers completed the experiment in the lab and 77 left-handers 95 right-handers completed the experiment online. All participants had normal or corrected-to-normal vision. Tobii Studio 3. Prior to commencing, participants were aligned with the centre of the eye tracker to ensure the midsagittal plane and the eyes were in the centre of the screen.

These objects were chosen because they were considered to be common and familiar. All images were mirror-reversed to generate left- and right-handled orientations of the products. These images were then used to create advertisements. We included text on the advertisements that referred to the products, which served to entice participants to buy the products, thereby more closely resembling actual advertisements.

However, we also anticipated that the text on the advertisements would draw attention, leading participants to spend less time examining the products within the advertisements. Accordingly, advertisement type was varied between-participants in our laboratory sample only, such that half of the advertisements contained text, while the other half did not.

Our online sample viewed advertisements with text only. Participants saw each of the 20 advertisements once in a pseudo-randomised order, such that the same object never appeared twice in a row.

Each object was presented twice: Procedure Laboratory. Following informed consent, participants completed a 9-point calibration on the eye tracker. Participants were informed they would view a series of advertisements and they should scan these images freely, bearing in mind the following three questions: Each trial began with a fixation cross 1 second. Participants then saw an advertisement for a fixed time of 20 seconds, after which they completed the three rating scales. Participants were given an unlimited amount of time to register their ratings.

For each question, participants indicated their desired rating via mouse click on a horizontal visual analogue scale. We used visual analogue scales in order to detect smaller differences in ratings compared to a traditional 7-point Likert-type scale i. As there are known leftward biases in Likert scales [ 30 ], and participants could have shown a bias towards the left end of the line [ 31 ], we used two versions of the rating scales.

Qualtrics online survey software was used to administer these stimuli on the CrowdFlower website on between June and September We used an extended sampling period to allow additional time for left-handed participants to complete the survey. Participation was voluntary and anonymous.

An easy to use software for picture viewing and manipulation

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Although left-handers become accustomed to using right-handed devices, an underlying preference for objects that afford the dominant hand could remain. We employed eye tracking while left- and right-handed participants viewed advertisements for everyday products. Participants then rated aesthetic appeal, purchase intention, and perceived value.

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VIDEO REVIEW: Left-handers know what’s left is right: Handedness and object affordance

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