Kambara, H. Huang, and T. Chang, S.
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Kambara, H. Huang, and T. Chang, S. Dickson, Y. Guo, K. Urashima, and M. Inutake, A. Ando, H. Tobari, and K. The idea of organizing this book was developed during the second International School of Industrial Plasma Application, held at Villa Monastero in Varenna, Italy, in October , where approximately one hundred attendees from all over the world were assembled.
The aim of the School was to describe, in a tutorial way, the numerous modern industrial applications of plasmas. Now, three years later, this book is issued with the same tutorial purpose: Advanced Plasma Technology is a collection of 25 chapters on various aspects of plasma processes authored by well known plasma scientists.
We are convinced that this book will be of help to both students and researchers, in academia as well as in the industry. We hope that you, reader, will enjoy reading this book as much as we enjoyed editing it. Box Patras Greece F. Isahaya Nagasaki Japan T. The author has been concerned with basic experiments on discharge plasmas along this line of research.
Here are presented some essential points of basic approaches to plasma production and control. They include works on large-diameter plasma production, electron-temperature and ion-energy controls, and dust particle collection and removal.
They are for high-density electron cyclotron resonance ECR and rf plasmas yielding uniform plasma processing in actual manufacturing devices, the diameters of which are larger than several tens of centimeters. These discharge plasmas are produced under low gas pressures. New approaches to medium-pressure and high atmospheric -pressure discharge plasmas are also described in some detail.
Electron temperature is continuously controlled in the wide range of one or two orders of magnitude in a region separated from a discharge region. A new approach is presented for this purpose. Dust collection and removal are quite important for many kinds of material and device manufacturing.
One of the methods is based on ECR. For the other method, we employ the magnetron-type rf discharge. In both of them, weakly ionized plasmas are produced by low-pressure discharges in a vacuum chamber, the wall of which is separated into two parts.
One part is electrically grounded and the other part is used as an antenna or rf electrode. Therefore, in principle, we need no additional electrode for plasma production in the vacuum chamber. But, radial plasma diffusion makes the plasmas uniform at an axial position a little away from the production region.
A schematic feature of ECR plasma production [1,2] is illustrated in Fig. The antenna, which is situated at one end of a vacuum chamber, consists of a back plate with permanent magnets behind and a slotted plate separated from the back plate. A microwave of 2. The slotted plate can be covered with a thin glass plate. Typical results are presented in Fig. The plasma density is almost proportional to the microwave power. An antenna system shown in Fig. An rf power of A discharge is triggered between this powered electrode and the other parts of the vacuum chamber, which are electrically grounded, in the range of argon pressure 5.
Permanent magnets, which are situated just outside the cylinder to construct azimuthal magnet rings, provide magnetic mirrors axially near the inner surface of the ring electrode. This motion of electrons reduces a potential drop in front of the electrode, which is closely connected with an interaction of ions with the electrode.
The plasma density is found to have a peak near the electrode and decreases in the direction toward the radial center. Now we can produce a uniform plasma, the diameter of which is larger than cm [6,7]. A feedback control is effective for meter-size uniform processing, where the signal due to the non-uniformity is used as a feedback signal to a small electrode for additional discharge to provide uniform processing.
Therefore we can control energies of ions toward substrates  and particle sputtering due to high-energy ions accelerated by the potential drop. Figure 1. Multi-hollows formed in a cathode rf powered electrode are known to be effective for increasing the plasma density. A cathode with isolated hollows CIH see Fig. But, the discharge is often localized in the special hollow s. There is also a possibility of dust particle trapping in the isolated hollows.
Here, a cathode with connected hollows CCH see Fig. In this case, the hollows are connected 1. In the case of the CCH, the discharge brightness is enhanced and the plasma density is twice as high as that in the case of plane parallelplate discharge at the same input rf power.
Electrodes for this discharge are shown in Fig. An equivalent circuit for this situation of discharge is shown in Fig. We have proposed a quite simple method of plasma production under high atmospheric gas pressure. Pole-type electrodes, which are coupled with external capacitors, are set near a metal plate.
This arrangement is just a direct realization of the circuit in Fig. This is called capacity-coupled multi-discharge CCMD . Under some conditions, the pole length is set to be so short that the electrodes are almost small plates. Being different from the barrier discharges, the discharge power of the CCMD can be externally controlled to increase by increasing the capacity of the capacitors.
Measurements have proved that the CCMD provides high-power discharges, suggesting new possibilities for plasma applications in the high atmospheric pressure range. Here are demonstrated two methods adopted for electron-temperature control, which might be useful in next-stage plasma processing.
One of them is accomplished by using a pin-hollow cathode while the other employs a mesh grid. Both methods are based on trapping of electrons ionized in discharge-free region, which is provided by varying a local discharge structure.
Therefore, in both methods, there appears a region of low electron temperature in addition to the discharge region of high electron temperature.
The volume ratio of these regions is important and has to be carefully determined in actual applications for plasma processing. Our methods suggest a general principle of electron-temperature control in low-pressure discharge plasmas. A schematic feature of the pin-hollow cathode action for low-pressure DC discharges is demonstrated in Fig.
In a typical setup, the cathode consists of 20 cm diameter stainless steel cylinder with 17 cm diameter hole at the front edge and 0. The 48 pins, connected electrically with the cylinder, are set with an equal separation on a 16 cm diameter circle.
The pin length d is varied from 0 to 7 cm. As found in Fig. With an increase in d, the glow becomes weak gradually in the radial core part of the plasma. The core Fig. As d is increased, the electron temperature Te is observed to decrease drastically, being accompanied by a slight increase in the plasma density np in this core plasma. This result is ascribed to trapping of primary electrons in the potential-hill structure formed by the pins in the cathode. A typical example of electron-temperature effects is presented in Fig.
In the pure Ar discharge, the Langmuir probe shows a clear decrease in Te. On the other hand, in the presence of a small amount of CH4, the probe shows a drastic decrease in the negative current, suggesting production of negative ions. There also appears a drastic change in the densities of radical species in this kind of reactive plasma .
A grid is employed in the other method, which separates the discharge region I from the region II for plasma processing . As shown in Fig. Ionization occurs due to the tail electrons in the region II. Electrons produced there are not responsible for maintaining the discharge, having a low Te. Therefore, Te in the region II decreases with an increase in the negative grid potential. As z is increased, their density increases while high-energy electrons disappear gradually.
There is a quite drastic effect of VG on Te. This result is well understood by the mechanism shown in Fig. The plasma is produced by a DC discharge in this example. Even if there is no external potential applied to the grid, the electron temperature in the region II depends on the mesh size. It is better to make a hole or slit in the grid, the size of which is much larger than the mesh size. By varying the hole or slit size mechanically, we can control the electron temperature.
An example of the grids used is shown in Fig. As demonstrated in Fig. Both of the methods yield continuous Te controls over one to two orders of magnitude. Drastic effects of Te on reactive plasmas have been observed in the experiments.
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Advanced Plasma Technology
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