Cutting Optimization Pro 5.9.10.1

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The presentation of oral meloxicam used in the previous studies differs from the liquid formulation approved for use in cattle in Canada. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics PK of SC and PO meloxicam and to assess the effect of different routes of meloxicam administration on indicators of pain and inflammation in 7—8 month old calves during and after knife castration. We hypothesize that indicators of pain and inflammation will be mitigated after PO and SC administration but the effect will be observed at different time points after castration due to differences in PK. Animals were cared for in accordance with the Canadian Council of Animal Care guidelines [ 11 ].
Cutting Optimization Pro 5.9.10.1

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The presentation of oral meloxicam used in the previous studies differs from the liquid formulation approved for use in cattle in Canada. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics PK of SC and PO meloxicam and to assess the effect of different routes of meloxicam administration on indicators of pain and inflammation in 7—8 month old calves during and after knife castration.

We hypothesize that indicators of pain and inflammation will be mitigated after PO and SC administration but the effect will be observed at different time points after castration due to differences in PK. Animals were cared for in accordance with the Canadian Council of Animal Care guidelines [ 11 ].

Pens Calves were equally distributed by weight into pens and randomly assigned to treatments. The day of castration, calves were restrained in a hydraulic squeeze chute Cattlelac Cattle, Reg Cox Feedmixers Ltd, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada where they were sampled and castrated. The experiment consisted of two treatment groups: The same veterinarian performed the knife castration on all the calves by making a latero-lateral incision on the scrotum with a Newberry castration knife Syrvet Inc.

Sample collection Sampling time points included 24 and 48 h prior to castration d -1 and -2 , immediately before castration T0 , as well as 30, 60, 90, , , min and on d 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 after castration. Meloxicam Meloxicam samples were collected on d -2, T0, 30, 60, 90, , , min and on d 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 after castration to determine plasma concentrations of meloxicam for all calves.

The plasma concentration vs. Non-compartment PK approach was applied to the data using a pre-structured model Model: Plasma — with uniform weighting in the software. Area under the plasma concentration vs. Peak plasma concentration Cmax and time to achieve peak concentration Tmax were determined directly from the observed data. Salivary cortisol Salivary samples were collected on d -1, -2, T0, 30, 60, 90, , , min and on d 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 after castration.

Salivary cortisol concentrations were quantified using an enzyme immunoassay kit Salimetrics, State College, PA. Inter-assay CV and intra-assay CV were Hair cortisol Hair from the forehead of the calves was clipped on d—2, 14 and 28 after castration. Samples were stored in plastic bags at room temperature and handled and analyzed as described by Moya et al.

Substance P Samples were collected from all calves through jugular venipuncture at d -1, -2, T0, 30, 60, 90, , and min, and on d 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 after castration. The intra-assay CV was 8. Haptoglobin and serum amyloid-A Samples were collected from all calves through jugular venipuncture at d -1, T0, 90 and min, and on d 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 after castration.

The inter-assay CV for haptoglobin was 8. Complete blood cell count Blood samples were collected through jugular venipuncture at d -2, -1, T0, 30, 60, 90, , , and min, and on d 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 after castration. Scrotal temperature Images of the scrotum and its surrounding area were collected on d -2, -1, T0, 30, 60, 90, , , min and on d 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 after castration.

An emissivity coefficient of 0. Scrotal circumference The scrotum was evaluated on d -2, 90 and min, and on d 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 after castration using scrotal tape Reliabull, Lane Manufacturing, Denver, CO on the widest part of the scrotum [ 20 ]. Visual analog scale Two experienced observers placed a mark along a 10 cm line far left indicating no pain and far right extreme pain as an indicator of their perception of the amount of pain calves were experiencing during castration [ 19 ].

Due to the experimental conditions observers were not blind to treatments. Head movement A video camera was placed in front of the head gate during castration to record head movement. An observer blind to treatment used the middle of the hairline of the muzzle as a reference point to track the distance cm of head movement during castration using Kinovea General Public License version 2 [ 13 ].

Chute movement The movement of the animals in the chute during castration was quantified using strain gauges and accelerometers as previously described by Melendez et al.

Briefly, the right and left head gate were equipped with strain gauges to measure the force cattle exerted on the head gate by pushing or pulling, while the chute was equipped with three 1-axis accelerometers CXL-GP Series, Aceinna, Andover, MA measuring lateral, vertical and horizontal movement. Data from the accelerometers was added for each animal to obtain an overall acceleration force, and the data from the left and right head gate were added by animal to obtain an overall head gate force.

Data from d -1 and d -2 was used as a baseline for each calf, this data was collected after the animal entered the chute and prior to sampling for a 20 second period. These variables were divided by the time required to castrate each calf. Pain sensitivity Pain sensitivity was assessed as previously described by Marti et al.

Animals were tested on d -2, -1, T0, 30, 90, min and on d 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 after castration while standing in the chute with their head restrained. The maximum pressure exerted on the wound before a behavioural reaction steps, kicks or tail flicks was recorded. Stride length Video recordings of calves walking through a 1 x 3 m alley were collected on d -2, -1, immediately after castration, 30, 60, 90, , , min and on d 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 after castration.

Stride length was collected as described by Currah et al. Data from d 5 and 14 were removed from the analysis due to incomplete data for the majority of animals. Pen behavior An experienced observer blind to the treatments scored behaviour for a 4 hour period between 5 to 9 hour relative to castration on d 0 when calves returned to their home pen, and at the same time of the day on d 1, 2, 3 and 7 after castration.

Focal animal sampling from continuous recordings [ 22 ] were used to score frequency of tail flicks, foot stamping, head turning and lesion licking and duration of standing, lying, walking and eating.

Behaviours were modified from the ethogram described by Molony et al. Behaviours were defined as: Intra-rater reliability was 0. Standing and lying behavior Accelerometers Hobo pendant G, Onset Computer Corporation, Bourne, MA were placed on the calves using Vet Wrap Professional Preference, Calgary, Canada to determine daily standing and lying percentage, and daily average standing and lying bout duration [ 24 ]. Accelerometers were wrapped in plastic to protect the device from moisture and in foam to avoid discomfort when placed above the hock [ 17 ].

Accelerometers were placed on d -1 and changed weekly to avoid inflammation of the area. Information from days when accelerometers were changed d 7, 14, 21 and 28 were excluded from the analysis due to incomplete data collection. Each calf was fitted with a radio frequency ear tag and each pen was equipped with 5 feeding tubs which recorded feeding behaviour for each individual calf 24 hours a day over a 28 d period.

As in the previous study, a meal criterion of s was selected as it has been previously used in cattle [

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